Attempt over the growth and history of plate tectonics
Plate tectonics arises from two terms plate and tectonic. Plate in geological phrases means a significant slab of difficult rock when tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic is usually outlined as how the earth’s is constructed on shifting the plate. It can even be well-defined to be a rigid segment of your Earth’s lithosphere that moves separately from these surrounding it (Rodger, 1993). Principle of plate tectonics states the lithosphere of the earth is made up of specific plates which have been fragmented into a number of massive and modest pieces of strong rock. The plates go upcoming to one another on top of the reduced mantle to make assorted forms of plate borders which have shaped the term paper writers Earth’s landscape over numerous several years.(Oreskes & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder of the plate tectonic principle; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were connected to a single substantial plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart over 300 million years ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research over the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The idea was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder from the idea on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics concept could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from each individual other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as the mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the concept of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift of the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle on the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to shift. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic principle and forces that were behind the drifting on the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of several plate from the main one. Several major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding to the three main driving forces for the movement from the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his concept. The huge convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to reduced mantle. The reduced mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to go out and away from the ridge thus transferring the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the bordering ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause decrease mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement on the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Plates form different sorts of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some from the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and go away from every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with many evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some on the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting on the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were tricky to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving that the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand., 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape with the earth is the way it is, scientist community currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic concept. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it quite a few kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced which the plates move linearly and away from every single other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s heritage on the modern concept from the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A historical past in the earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.